Article of the Year 2021
Combined Use of Chitosan and Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells to Promote Peripheral Nerve Regeneration In VivoRead the full article
Stem Cells International publishes papers in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal publishes basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Chief Editor Professor Li has a background in cardiac stem cell transplantation, using young stem cells to promote tissue repair following injury to rejuvenate the aged individual, and the development of biomaterials that can easily integrate into damaged heart tissue.
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Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (hBMSCs)-Derived miR-29a-3p-Containing Exosomes Impede Laryngocarcinoma Cell Malignant Phenotypes by Inhibiting PTEN
Although microRNA-29a-3p was reported to inhibit laryngocarcinoma progression, the potential mechanisms have not been explored clearly. Laryngocarcinoma tissues were collected for analyzing the levels of miR-29a-3p and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). The miR mimics or inhibitor was transfected into laryngocarcinoma cell lines M4E and Hep2 for the investigation of the biological functions (proliferative, invasion, migratory rates, and apoptotic rates) of this miRNA. The exosomes (Exo) from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) after the transfection of miR mimics/inhibitor/si-PTEN were isolated and used to stimulate M4E and Hep2 cells. The in vivo mouse model was constructed to verify our findings. The miR-29a-3p level was decreased, and PTEN level was elevated in laryngocarcinoma tissues and the cancer cell lines. MiR mimics could inhibit proliferative, invasive migratory rates while promoting apoptotic rates of M4E and Hep2 cells. MiR-29a-3p was enriched in hBMSC-derived Exo, and the Exo from miR-29a-3p mimics transfected hBMSCs could inhibit laryngocarcinoma cell malignant phenotypes in vitro and prevent tumor progression in vivo. In addition, the direct binding relationship between miR-29a-3p and PTEN in this disease was determined. In conclusion, hBMSC-derived Exo with upregulated miR-29a-3p inhibited laryngocarcinoma progression via regulating PTEN, providing a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in this disease.
Segmentation Algorithm of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Glioma under Fully Convolutional Densely Connected Convolutional Networks
This work focused on the application value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image segmentation algorithm based on fully convolutional DenseNet neural network (FCDNN) in glioma diagnosis. In this work, based on the fully convolutional DenseNet algorithm, a new MRI image automatic semantic segmentation method cerebral gliomas semantic segmentation network (CGSSNet) was established and was applied to glioma MRI image segmentation by using the BraTS public dataset as research data. Under the same conditions, compare the differences of dice similarity coefficient (DSC), sensitivity, and Hausdroff distance (HD) between this algorithm and other algorithms in MRI image processing. The results showed that the CGSSNet network segmentation algorithm significantly improved the segmentation accuracy of glioma MRI images. In addition, its DSC, sensitivity, and HD values for glioma MRI images were 0.937, 0.811, and 1.201, respectively. Under different iteration times, the DSC, sensitivity, and HD values of the CGSSNet network segmentation algorithm are significantly better than other algorithms. It showed that the CGSSNet model based on the DenseNet can improve the segmentation accuracy of glioma MRI images, and has potential application value in clinical practice.
DPSCs Protect Architectural Integrity and Alleviate Intervertebral Disc Degeneration by Regulating Nucleus Pulposus Immune Status
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is the primary cause for low back pain that has a high prevalence in modern society and poses enormous economic burden on patients. Few effective therapeutic strategies are available for IVD degeneration treatment. To understand the biological effects of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, we carried out RNA sequencing, bioinformatic analysis which unveiled gene expression differences, and pathway variation in primarily isolated patients’ NP cells after treatment with DPSCs supernatant. Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to verify these molecular alterations. Besides, to evaluate the therapeutic effect of DPSCs in IVD degeneration treatment, DPSCs were injected into a degeneration rat model in situ, with treatment outcome measured by micro-CT and histological analysis. RNA sequencing and in vitro experiments demonstrated that DPSCs supernatant could downregulate NP cells’ inflammation-related NF-κB and JAK-STAT pathways, reduce IL-6 production, increase collagen II expression, and mitigate apoptosis. In vivo results showed that DPSCs treatment protected the integrity of the disc structure, alleviated extracellular matrix degradation, and increased collagen fiber expression. In this study, we verified the therapeutic effect of DPSCs in an IVD degeneration rat model and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism of DPSCs treatment, which provides a foundation for the application of DPSCs in IVD degeneration treatment.
Bone Marrow Culture-Derived Conditioned Medium Recovers Endothelial Function of Vascular Grafts following In Vitro Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a challenge in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Diabetic patients with coronary artery disease are more likely to require CABG and therefore run a high risk for cardiovascular complications. Conditioned medium (CM) from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has been shown to have beneficial effects against IRI. We hypothesized that adding CM to physiological saline protects vascular grafts from IRI in diabetic rats. Bone-marrow derived cells were isolated from nondiabetic rat femurs/tibias, and CM was generated. As we previously reported, CM contains 23 factors involved in inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. DM was induced by streptozotocin administration. Eight weeks later, to measure vascular function, aortic rings were isolated and mounted in organ bath chambers (DM group) or stored in 4°C saline, supplemented either with a vehicle (DM-IR group) or CM (DM-IR+CM group). Although DM was associated with structural changes compared to controls, there were no functional alterations. However, compared to the DM group, in the DM-IR aortas, impaired maximum endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine (DM % vs. DM-IR % vs. DM-IR+CM %, ) was improved, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-12 immunoreactivity was decreased, and DNA strand breakage, detected by the TUNEL assay, was reduced by CM. We present the experimental finding that the preservation of vascular grafts with CM prevents endothelial dysfunction after IRI in diabetic rats. Targeting apoptosis by CM may contribute to its protective effect.
High-Fat Diet Increases Bone Loss by Inducing Ferroptosis in Osteoblasts
Current research suggests that chronic high-fat dietary intake can lead to bone loss in adults; however, the mechanism by which high-fat diets affect the development of osteoporosis in individuals is unclear. As high-fat diets are strongly associated with ferroptosis, whether ferroptosis mediates high-fat diet-induced bone loss was the focus of our current study. By dividing the mice into a high-fat diet group, a high-fat diet + ferroptosis inhibitor group and a normal chow group, mice in the high-fat group were given a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The mice in the high-fat diet + ferroptosis inhibitor group were given 1 mg/kg Fer-1 per day intraperitoneally at the start of the high-fat diet. Microscopic CT scans, histological tests, and biochemical indicators of ferroptosis were performed on bone tissue from all three groups at the end of the modelling period. Mc3t3-E1 cells were also used in vitro and divided into three groups: high-fat medium group, high-fat medium+ferroptosis inhibitor group, and control group. After 24 hours of incubation in high-fat medium, Mc3t3-E1 cells were assayed for ferroptosis marker proteins and biochemical parameters, and osteogenesis induction was performed simultaneously. Cellular alkaline phosphatase content and expression of osteogenesis-related proteins were measured at day 7 of osteogenesis induction. The results showed that a high-fat diet led to the development of femoral bone loss in mice and that this process could be inhibited by ferroptosis inhibitors. The high-fat diet mainly affected the number of osteoblasts produced in the bone marrow cavity. The high-fat environment in vitro inhibited osteoblast proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and significant changes in ferroptosis-related biochemical parameters were observed. These findings have implications for the future clinical treatment of bone loss caused by high-fat diets.
The Mechanism of Oxidative Stress in Cells Isolation, Identification, and Genome-Wide Sequence Analysis of Nitrite Amylolytic Bacillus
To improve the quality of traditional fermented pickles and reduce the nitrite content in the production process of pickles, the target bacteria for efficient nitrite degradation were screened from traditional fermented pickles. Pickles (picked vegetables), a traditional dish favored by many Chinese, are mildly salted and lactic acid-fermented vegetables in China. However, the presence of nitrite in pickles is a bottleneck which limits further development of the pickle industry. More attention is drawn to the problem of the presence of nitrite in pickles. Having harmful effect in the acidic environment produced by gastric acid, nitrite is converted into carcinogenic nitrosamine. After screening several nitrite-degrading bacteria in the early stage, a Gram-positive round ended Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is named as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JBA-CH9, which can degrade nitrite efficiently. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is a common bacterium in the food fermentation industry. Then, the optimum conditions for nitrite degradation of the strain were explored according to the inoculation amount, temperature and salinity, and the whole genome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JBA-CH9 was sequenced. The results showed that the strain had the best degradation effect on nitrite under the conditions of inoculation amount of 9%, salinity of 5%, and 30°C, and the highest degradation rate of nitrite was 91.47%. The results of whole genome sequencing showed that the strain had a large number of functional genes related to amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids and contained nitrite reductase genes related to nitrite metabolism. Therefore, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JBA-CH9 is a functional strain that can degrade nitrite efficiently.