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Yield and Coverage of Active Case Finding Interventions for Tuberculosis Control:A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisRead the full article
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Determinants of Weight Gain among Adult Tuberculosis Patients during Intensive Phase in Debre Markos Town Public Health Facilities, Northwest Ethiopia, 2020: Unmatched Case-Control Study
Background. Ethiopia is one of the highest tuberculosis burden countries globally, and tuberculosis is one of the most pressing health problems nationally. Weight gain during treatment is the main indicator of good treatment outcome, but there is no adequate information regarding the factors that affect weight gain in Ethiopia. Objective. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of weight gain among adult tuberculosis patients during the intensive phase, in Debre Markos town public health institutions Northwest Ethiopia, 2020. Methods. Unmatched case-control study was conducted in Debre Markos town public health facilities with a total sample size of 236. Cases (clients who got weight) and controls (clients who did not get weight) were enrolled in the study consecutively, and data were collected using standardized questionnaires. Data were entered through Epi-Data version 4.2 and exported to SPSS version 25 for analysis. Bivariable analysis was done, and all independent variables that had were entered into multivariable binary logistic regression analysis. Finally, independent variables which were significantly associated with weight gain at were considered determinant factors of weight gain. Result. Pulmonary tuberculosis (AOR: 5 (95% CI: 2.3, 11.2)), monitoring by health professionals (AOR: 3.7 (1.6, 8.4)), ≥18.5 baseline body mass index (AOR: 3.4 (95% CI: 1.6, 7.3)), parasitic disease (AOR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.3, 7.99)), <30 days duration of illness before start of treatment (AOR: 2.8 (95% CI: 1.2, 6.1)), and human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AOR: 3.3 (95% CI: 1.2, 9.1)) were independently associated with weight gain compared to their counterpart. Conclusion. Type of tuberculosis, monitoring by health professionals, baseline status, parasitic disease, duration of illness before start of treatment, and human immune virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome were with the determinants of weight gain. Therefore, early detection, support and supervision, and attention for comorbidity are mandatory during antituberculosis treatment.
Research Questions and Priorities for Pediatric Tuberculosis: A Survey of Published Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
Background. Advancing a research agenda designed to meet the specific needs of children is critical to ending pediatric TB epidemic. Systematic reviews are increasingly informing policies in pediatric tuberculosis (TB) care and control. However, there is a paucity of information on pediatric TB research priorities. Methodology. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for systematic reviews and meta-analyses on any aspect related to pediatric TB published between 2015 and 2021. We used the UK Health Research Classification System (HRCS) to help us classify the research questions and priorities. Findings. In total, 29 systematic reviews, with 84 research questions, were included in this review. The four most common research topics in the area of detection were 43.33% screening and diagnosis of TB, 23.33% evaluation of treatments and therapeutic interventions, 13.34% TB etiology and risk factors, and 13.34% prevention of disease and conditions and promotion of well-being. The research priorities focused mainly on evaluating TB diagnosis by improving yield through enhanced in specimen collection or preparation and evaluating of bacteriological TB diagnostic tests. Other topics of future research were developing a treatment for TB in children, assessing the use of IPT in reducing TB-associated morbidity, evaluating the prioritization of an IPT-friendly healthcare environment, and providing additional guidance for the use of isoniazid in the prevention of TB in HIV-infected children. Conclusion. There is a need for more systematic reviews on pediatric TB. The review identified several key priorities for future pediatric TB research mainly in the domain of (1) “Detection, screening and diagnosis,” “Development of Treatments and Therapeutic Interventions,” and “Prevention of Disease and Conditions, and Promotion of Well-Being.” These domains are very relevant in the research component of the roadmap towards ending TB in children. It also will serve as an additional action in the WHO End TB strategy.
Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Rifampicin Resistance Using GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay at Enat Hospital, Central Ethiopia
Background. Tuberculosis remains to be a public health threat in Ethiopia. However, the use of ill diagnostic methods and the lack of enough epidemiological information in the country contributed to the diagnostic delay and development of anti-TB drug resistance. Therefore, the present study is aimed at assessing the prevalence of pulmonary TB (PTB) and the development of drug resistance using GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in Merhabete district, Central Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, health facility-based study was conducted from December 2019 to June 2020. Bacteriological examination and GeneXpert molecular diagnostic methods were used for the detection of M. tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance (RR). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the possible association of risk factors with the occurrence of PTB and RR. values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence rates of PTB and RR M. tuberculosis were 11.2% and 15.8%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that being in the age group of 49-64 years was significantly associated with the occurrence of TB (). The odds of HIV-positive and retreatment study participants to be infected by M. tuberculosis were much more than those of HIV-negative and newly treated cases, respectively (). However, none of the sociodemographic and clinical patient characteristics was significantly associated with the development of RR-TB (). Conclusion. In the present study, high prevalence rates of PTB and RR M. tuberculosis were observed. The findings, which were attributed to different risk factors, suggested an urgent need for appropriate intervention measures to reduce the transmission of PTB and the development of anti-TB drug resistance in the study area.
Time to Develop and Predictors for Incidence of Tuberculosis among Children Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
Infection by the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is the strongest risk factor for latent or new infection of tuberculosis (TB) through reduction of CD4 T-lymphocytes and cellular immune function. Almost one-third of deaths among people living with HIV are attributed to tuberculosis. Despite this evidence, in Ethiopia, there is a scarcity of information regarding the incidence of tuberculosis for children living with HIV. Thus, this study assessed time to develop and predictors for incidence of tuberculosis in children attending HIV/AIDS care in public hospitals: North West Ethiopia 2021. Methods. A facility-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 421 seropositive children on antiretroviral therapy in two hospitals between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2020. EPI-DATA version 3.2 and STATA/14 software were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. Tuberculosis-free survival time was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Bivariate and multivariable Cox regression model was fitted to identify predictors at a value <0.05 within 95% CI. Results. In the final analysis, a total of 421 seropositive children were included, of whom, 64 (15.2%) developed tuberculosis at the time of follow-up. The mean (±SD) age of the children was years, with a median (IQR) time to develop TB that was 23.5 () months. This study found that the incidence of tuberculosis was 5.9 (95% CI: 4.7; 7.6) per 100 person-years (PY) risk of observation. Cases at baseline not taking cotrimoxazol preventive therapy (CPT) (; 95% CI, 1.4-4.7, ), being severely stunted (: 95% CI, 1.2-7.8, ), and having low hemoglobin level (; 95% CI, 2.1-8.1, ) were found to be predictors of tuberculosis. Conclusion. A higher rate of tuberculosis incidence was reported in our study as compared with previous studies in Ethiopia. Cases at baseline not taking cotrimoxazol preventive therapy (CPT), being severely stunted, and having low hemoglobin (≤10 mg/dl) levels were found to be at higher risk to developed TB incidence.
Mycobacterial Lineages Associated with Drug Resistance in Patients with Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background. In Ethiopia, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common causes of illness and death. However, there is limited information available on lineages associated with drug resistance among extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia. In this study, researchers looked into Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages linked to drug resistance in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. On 151 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, a cross-sectional analysis was performed. Spoligotyping was used to characterize mycobacterial lineages, while a phenotypic drug susceptibility test was performed to determine the drug resistance pattern. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results. Among 151 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotyped isolates, four lineages (L1–L4), and Mycobacterium bovis were identified. The predominantly identified lineage was Euro-American (73.5%) followed by East-African-Indian (19.2%). Any drug resistance (RR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis was identified among 16.2% and 7.2% of the Euro-American lineage, respectively, while it was 30.8% and 15.4% among the East-African-Indian lineages. Among all three preextensively drug-resistance (pre-XDR) cases identified, two isolates belong to T3-ETH, and the other one strain was not defined by the database. There was no statistically significant association between any type of drug resistance and either lineage or sublineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion. A higher proportion of any type of drug resistance and MDR was detected among the East-African-Indian lineage compared to others. However, there was no statistically significant association between any type of drug resistance and either lineages or sublineages. Thus, the authors recommend a large-scale study.
Treatment Outcomes and Associated Factors in Tuberculosis Patients at Atwima Nwabiagya District, Ashanti Region, Ghana: A Ten-Year Retrospective Study
Introduction. Tuberculosis poses a great threat to public health around the globe and affects persons mostly in their productive age, notwithstanding; everyone is susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) infection. To assess the effectiveness and performance of the tuberculosis control program activities, the percentage of cases with treatment success outcome is key. To control tuberculosis, interrupting transmission through effective treatment cannot be overemphasized. The study was conducted to determine factors associated with TB treatment outcome, in the Atwima Nwabiagya District from 2007–2017. Method. A Retrospective review of routine/standard TB registers was carried out in five directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) centres at the Atwima Nwabiagya District from January 2007 to December 2017. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes were assessed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine the predictors of successful treatment outcome. Results. Of the 891 TB client’s data that was assessed in the district, the treatment success rate was 68.46%. Patients, years (adjusted odds ratio , ) and 51-60 years (, ), having a pretreatment weight of 35-45 kg (, ), 46-55 kg (, ) and 56-65 kg (, ) were associated with treatment success. However, retreatment patients (, ) resulted in unsuccessful treatment outcome. Conclusion. Successful treatment outcome among TB patients was about 20.00% and 30.00% lower compared to the national average treatment success rate and WHO target, respectively. Active monitoring, motivation, and counselling of retreatment patients and patients with advanced age are key to treatment success.
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