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Epidural Analgesia for Pain Management in Acute Pancreatitis during Pregnancy and Its Effect on Maternal and Fetal Outcome
Background. Acute pancreatitis (AP) during pregnancy is a rare presentation with an estimated incidence of 1 case per 1000 to 10,000 pregnancies. Severe epigastric and abdominal pain is the earliest and the most common symptom of AP, and adequate pain relief is an integral part of patient management. The aim of our study was to investigate the different pain relief modalities that are used in pregnant women with AP and the efficacy of each method used, in terms of better pain relief and maternal-fetal outcomes. Methods. This was a retrospective observational study over a period of 6 years conducted at a tertiary care hospital. Pregnant women with clinical and biochemical diagnoses of acute pancreatitis were included in the study. Patient’s history and clinical and biochemical data were collected from the medical records of the hospital. Results. A total of 12 patients were included in the study, 5 out of 12 patients had gall stones associated with AP, 2 patients had hypertriglyceridemia, and 1 each had preeclampsia and eclampsia. Epidural analgesia at the level of L1-L2 spinal level showed a reduction of VAS scores from 8 or 9 to 1 or 2, indicating excellent pain as compared to t intravenous (i/v) infusion of fentanyl or i/v boluses of injection tramadol, in whom VAS was never reduced below 3. With satisfactory results, labour analgesia and anesthesia for caesarean section was provided via the same catheter in 2 and 3 patients, respectively. Maternal and fetal outcomes were comparable in all the patients. Conclusion. AP in pregnancy, when diagnosed early and managed accordingly, leads to better maternal and fetal outcomes. Epidural analgesia was better than intravenous analgesia in terms of pain management and better recovery of acute pancreatitis patients. In these patients, labour analgesia and anesthesia for caesarean section can be provided through the same catheter, making it a potential novel modality in the treatment of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy.
Clinical Outcomes and Their Prognostic Factors among Cervical Cancer Patients with Bone Recurrence
Background. Bone recurrence occurs in 0.75%-8% of cervical cancer patients after primary treatment. Only a few previous studies have reported on survival times associated with prognostic factors for bone recurrent cervical cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the oncological outcomes and their predictors among cervical cancer patients with bone recurrence. Methods. The medical records of cervical cancer patients with bone recurrence who received primary treatment at Songklanagarind Hospital from January 2002 to December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Prognostic factors were identified using a Cox regression model. Results. The study included 6,354 cervical cancer patients, of whom 98 (1.54%) had bone recurrence at a median time of 25 months after the primary treatment (range 4.9-136 months). The most frequent site of bone recurrence was the spine (81.00%); the two most common visceral coexisting recurrence sites were the lungs and the liver. The median recurrence-free interval (RFI) was 21 months. Of the patients with recurrence, 75 (76.50%) were treated with combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The one-year overall survival (OS) after recurrence was 22.70%. On multivariate analysis, age under 60 years at the time of recurrence diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.47-4.18, ) and an RFI less than 21 months (HR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.04-2.55, ) were independent prognostic factors for OS after recurrence. Conclusion. Bone recurrence in cervical cancer patients is rare and is associated with poor survival. Our study found that age and RFI were significant prognostic factors for OS in cervical cancer patients with bone recurrence.
Obstetrics and Gynecology Emergency Department Activity during Lockdown in a Teaching Hospital, Hub Center, for COVID-19
Background. The lockdown related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has imposed profound changes in the interaction of the population with hospitals and emergency departments. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of lockdown on the activity of obstetrics and gynecology emergency department (OGED) in a teaching hospital, hub center, for COVID-19. Methods. The study considers all visits to the OGED with their different triage color codes that represent the clinical severity of each case (from the most severe to the least one: red, yellow, green, white). Data were selected through the “PSNet” triage program and collected anonymously. We analyzed frequency distributions of the variables separately for each woman and calculated mean and standard deviations for continuous variables. We then analyzed the association between factors and outcomes for categorical variables (expressed as a number and percentage of the total) using the chi-square test (χ2). The level of significance was established with . Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics V20.0. Given the fact that the study has a retrospective observational nature and it is based on an anonymous routine database, approval by the Local Ethics Committee was not necessary. Results. The relative decrease of patients presenting to OGED in 2020 was −50.96%. The percentage of nonpregnant women was significantly lower in 2020 compared to 2019 (; Δ = −79.46%). Regarding the obstetric group, we saw an important decrease of visits in 2020 compared to 2019 (; Δ = −40%). The prevalence of yellow codes was significantly higher in 2020 (Δ = +29.72%), while that of white (Δ = −61.58%) and green (Δ = −52.22%) codes was significantly lower (). Comparing the diagnoses at discharge, we could highlight significant reductions in 2020 for more than one diagnosis: bleeding (; Δ = −70.42%), pain (; Δ = −81.22%), urinary diseases (; Δ = −75.64%), and gastrointestinal diseases (; Δ = −87.50%). Conclusions. An evident change emerged in relation to the dynamics between the local obstetrical and gynecological population, and OGED resources. The COVID‐19 lockdown greatly reduced the rate of admission to OGED without time-related obstetric and gynecological complications. The reduction of admissions suggests a more appropriate use of the ED by patients that may inspire future policies for the implementation of emergency services.
Adverse Perinatal and Maternal Outcomes and Associated Factors among Women with Antepartum Hemorrhage in Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia, 2020
Background. Globally, antepartum hemorrhage is the main cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and childbearing. Objective. To assess adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes and associated factors among women with antepartum hemorrhage in Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia, 2020. Methods. Prospective cross-section study was conducted, and data were collected through face to face interview among pregnant women admitted with antepartum hemorrhage. Patient condition was observed and followed up, and patient card was reviewed. Data were coded, checked, entered into EPI version 4.6, and exported to SPSS version 26.0 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was made to determine independent factors associated with adverse outcomes. Result. A total of 377 pregnant women were included, and nearly half (192 (50.9%)) of women experienced adverse maternal outcome and 113 (30%) women experienced adverse perinatal outcome. The status of vital sign, address, parity, antenatal care, duration of bleeding before arrival, gestational age, prematurity, and amount of vaginal bleeding were factors significantly associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome at value <0.05. Conclusion. Vital sign derangement, vaginal bleeding for ≥12 hrs, gestation age before 37 weeks, rural address, prim parity, amount of vaginal bleeding, and prematurity baby has predicted high rate of adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes. Recommendation. Jimma Hospital should give patient-centered service and strengthen counseling on danger sign of pregnancy to alert women early health care seeking and immediate resuscitation, and appropriate management should be given for women admitted with APH to minimize of adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes.
Determinants of Pelvic Floor Disorders among Women Visiting the Gynecology Outpatient Department in Wolkite University Specialized Center, Wolkite, Ethiopia
Background. Pelvic floor disorders encompass a broad range of interrelated clinical conditions. Pelvic floor disorders are a common public health concern that affects the lives of millions of adult females. This disorder is expected to be more widespread and probably more severe among women in low-income countries. However, there is limited knowledge about pelvic floor disorders and their determinants among women in Ethiopia. Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the determinants of pelvic floor disorders among women who visited the gynecology outpatient service at the Wolkite University Specialized Hospital, Wolkite, Ethiopia, in 2021. Methods. A cross-sectional hospital study was conducted on 275 randomly chosen women from June 1 to July 1, 2021. A systematic sampling technique was used when selecting the study subjects. The data were gathered using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. The data collected was entered in version 3.1 of EpiData, and version 23 of Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used for the analysis. The variables with a -value <0.25 in the bivariate analysis were considered for a subsequently built multivariable model, and factors with in the final model were statistically significant. The results were presented in an adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Result. The prevalence of pelvic floor disorder was reported to be 17.8% with 9.3% of the women experiencing urinary incontinence, 8.9% experiencing pelvic organ prolapse, and 5.9% experiencing anal incontinence. Two hundred thirty-two (85.9%) were currently married, while 110 (40.7%) were housewives. Statistically, a significant association was found between age at first pregnancy (AOR = 5.193; 95% CI = 1.905–14.157), many vaginal deliveries (AOR = 15.858; 95% CI = 5.305–47.400), history of episiotomy (AOR = 7.508 95% CI = 1.556–36.224), and menopause (AOR = 7.665; 95% CI = 2.440–24.078) when analyzed with a multivariate logistic regression model. Conclusion. In this study, age at first pregnancy, number of vaginal births, history of episiotomy, and menopause were independently associated with pelvic floor disorder. Therefore, educating women about the year of their first pregnancy, promoting family planning, and advice on the prevention of routine episiotomy by a health professional is recommended.
Comparison of Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta Spectrum Disorder Following Previous Cesarean Section between Women with a Short and Normal Interpregnancy Interval
Objectives. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of interpregnancy interval (IPI) on the incidence of placenta previa and placenta accreta spectrum disorders in women with a previous cesarean section. Methods. A prospective cohort three-center study involving parturients who had previous cesarean section was conducted. Participants were included if pregnancy has lasted up to 34 weeks. Parturients with co-existing uterine fibroids, multiple gestations, premature rupture of membranes, and those with prior postcesarean delivery wound infection were excluded. The eligible women recruited were distributed into two groups, namely, short (<18 months) and normal (18–36 months) IPI. The outcome measures were incidences of placenta previa and placenta accreta spectrum disorder and factors associated with the occurrence of placenta previa. A univariate analysis was performed using the chi-square test or Mann–Whitney U test, wherever appropriate, to examine the significance of the differences in clinical variables. Results. A total of 248 women met the inclusion criteria. The incidence of placenta previa by ultrasound was 8.9% and 4.0% for short and normal IPI (odds ratios = 2.32; 95% confidence intervals = 0.78–6.88; ), respectively. The incidence of placenta accreta spectrum disorder was 1.6% and 0.8% for short and normal IPI (odds ratios = 2.02; 95% confidence intervals = 0.18–22.13; ), respectively. The only observed significant difference between the clinical variables and placenta previa is the number of cesarean sections () in women with short IPI. Conclusion. A short interpregnancy interval does not significantly affect the incidence of placenta previa and placenta accreta spectrum disorder following a cesarean section. There is a need for further study with large numbers to corroborate these findings in low- and middle-income settings.