Factors Associated with the Uptake of Antenatal Tetanus Toxoids Containing Vaccine by First-Time Mothers in Nigeria: Findings from the 2018 Nigerian Demographic Health SurveyRead the full article
Journal of Pregnancy publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth. Topics include biomedical aspects of pregnancy labour, maternal health and breastfeeding.
Journal of Pregnancy maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Trends of and Factors Associated with Maternal Near-Miss in Selected Hospitals in North Shewa Zone, Central Ethiopia
Maternal near-miss (MNM) refers to a woman who nearly died but survived a complication that occurred during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy. Studies in Ethiopia showed an inconsistent proportion of MNM across time and in different setups. This study is aimed at assessing the magnitude, trends, and correlates of MNM at three selected hospitals in North Shewa Zone, Central Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 905 mothers who gave birth from 2012 to 2017 in three hospitals using the WHO criteria for MNM. Medical records of the study subjects were selected using a systematic sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a pretested data extraction tool. Association between MNM and independent variables was assessed by using a binary logistic regression model. An odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and value of <0.05 were used to declare the level of significance. Of the 905 medical records reviewed, the prevalence of MNM was 14.3% () and similar over the last six years (2012-2017). The magnitude of life-threatening pregnancy complications was found to be 12.7%; severe preeclampsia (31%) and postpartum hemorrhage (26%) account for the highest proportion. Admission at a higher level of obstetric care like referral hospital (; 95% CI: 1.82-12.94) and general hospital (; 95% CI: 1.37-10.33), not using partograph for labor monitoring (; 95% CI: 1.17-3.04), history of abortion (; 95% CI: 1.18-5.37), and any other pregnancy complications (; 95% CI: 3.89-12.28) were factors significantly associated with higher MNM. Even though lower than the national figure, the proportion of MNM in the study area was very high, and there were no significant changes over the last six consecutive years. Giving special emphasis to women with prior history of pregnancy complications, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and obstetric hemorrhage with strict and quick management protocols and the use of partograph for labor monitoring are recommended to reduce the burden of severe maternal outcomes in the study area and Ethiopia.
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) among Women with Macerated Stillbirth: A Cross-Sectional Hospital-Based Study from Mwanza, Tanzania
Background. Stillbirth adversely affects pregnancy outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Viral infections have been implicated as one of the causes of stillbirths. Despite high rates of stillbirths and high viral prevalence in LMICs, there is limited information regarding their association. This study investigated the magnitude of herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among women with macerated stillbirth. Methods. A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted involving 279 women with macerated stillbirth between July and August 2018 at different health facilities in Mwanza, Tanzania. Detection of HSV-2 was done by immunochromatographic test while that of HCMV was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Descriptive data analysis was done using STATA version 13. Results. A total of 28 (10.04%, 95% CI: 6.8-13.9) tested positive for HSV-2 IgG antibodies with only 4 (1.43%, 95% CL: 0.3-2.8) testing positive for HSV-2 IgM antibodies. HCMV IgG antibodies were detected in 131 (77.98%, 95% CI: 71-84) of 168 women tested. By multivariate logistic regulation analysis, advanced age (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99, ) was significantly associated with negative HSV-2 IgG antibodies. By log multinomial regression analysis, only urban residence (RRR.4.43: 95% CI 1.53-12.80, ) independently predicted HCMV IgG seropositivity among women with stillbirth. Twenty-one (30.9%) of women with positive HCMV IgG antibodies had low avidity index (<40%) indicating recent infection. Conclusion. Significant proportion of women with macerated stillbirth residing in urban and with low age have HCMV and HSV antibodies, respectively. This calls for the need to consider introducing screening of these infections in the Tanzanian antenatal package and further studies to explore the role of these viruses in causing stillbirth in Tanzania.
Associations of Maternal Complaints to Levator Ani Muscle Trauma within 9 Months after Vaginal Birth: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study
Introduction. Pelvic floor trauma in the form of partial or complete avulsions of the levator ani muscle (LAM) affects 6-42% of women after vaginal birth and can cause tremendous long-term morbidity. Many studies assessed morphological pelvic floor trauma after childbirth but lacked to evaluate women’s associated short-term complaints. A proper assessment of trauma and subjective complaints after birth could help to assess possible associations between them and their relevance to women’s daily life. Therefore, we aimed to assess women’s complaints within the first months after birth in association to their LAM trauma. Materials and Methods. Between 3/2017 and 4/2019, we prospectively evaluated vaginal births of 212 primiparous women with singletons in gestational weeks for levator ani muscle (LAM) trauma by translabial ultrasound, for pelvic organ prolapse by clinical examination, and for urogynecological complaints using questionnaires 1-4 days (P1), 6-10 weeks (P2), and 6-9 months (P3) after birth. The questionnaires were self-designed but oriented to and modified from validated questionnaires. Women’s complaints were evaluated for P1-P3 according to their LAM trauma state. Results. At P1, 67% of women showed an intact LAM, whereas 14.6% presented a hematoma, 6.6% a partial avulsion (PAV), and 11.8% a complete avulsion (CAV). At P2, 75.9% showed an intact LAM, 9.9% a PAV, and 14.2% a CAV. At P3, 72.9% of women with a LAM trauma in P1 and/or P2 were assessed with 21.6% being intact and 39.2% having a PAV and CAV, respectively. Obstetrical and baseline characteristics differed slightly between the groups. When comparing the time before and during pregnancy with the time after childbirth, birth itself affected women’s complaints in all LAM state groups, but the presence of a LAM trauma, especially a CAV, had more negative effects. Conclusions. Vaginal birth changes the anatomical structure of the maternal birth canal and genital tract, and it alters women’s perceptions and body function. In our study, LAM trauma did not change these effects tremendously within the first months. Therefore, other maternal, fetal, and obstetrical factors need consideration for the explanation of maternal complaints, in addition to long-term effects of trauma and dysfunction of the LAM and other birth canal structures.
Exclusive Breastfeeding and Its Determinants in Yaoundé, Cameroon: A Retrospective Survival Analysis
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) of infants for the first six months of life is a global public health goal that is linked to the reduction of morbidity and mortality in infants, especially in low middle-income countries. In low middle-income countries like Cameroon, it is realistic that compliance with EBF can significantly reduce the burden of under five mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence and determinants influencing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Data was collected through a mixed method and systematically through a retrospective survival analysis approach where a total number of 503 randomly selected individuals in Yaoundé, Cameroon, participated in the study. Data was collected between November 2019 and May 2020. A Cox proportional hazard modelling and Kaplan-Meier analysis were employed to identify prognostic factors affecting survival time defined as the duration, in months, from birth until the time of stopping EBF. The average time for nursing mothers to practice EBF was 3.61 ± 0.010 months. This study found that more than 90% of mothers were aware of the importance of compliance with EBF but only 38% practiced EBF and 62% of mothers could not adhere to EBF recommendations. Factors that influence compliance with EBF included a mother being married (HR: 0.70; 95% CI = [0.55-0.89], =0.003) which was a protective factor while mother’s tertiary education (HR: 1.43; 95% CI = [1.11-1.84], =0.005) was a risk factor with non-compliance with EBF when compared to those with basic or no formal education. The Kaplan-Meier curve indicated that as time goes on, babies are less likely to be exclusively breastfed after a specific time period within two and three months. This implies that the chance for a baby to remain exclusively breastfed after five months is 74.3% (0.74). Continuous sensitization and enforcement measures are recommended to promote EBF.
Outcomes following Placement and Removal of Transvaginal Cerclage in at Risk Pregnancies: A Single Center Experience
Objective. The objective of this study was to estimate the time between removal of cerclage and delivery, stratified by indication for cerclage placement (elective or non-elective). Additionally, delivery within 72 hours after cerclage removal was compared between elective and non-elective cerclage placement, as well as between ultrasound-indicated and physical examination-indicated cerclage placement. Design. A single-center retrospective cohort study. Participants/Materials, Setting, and Methods. Clinical information of 72 pregnant women who underwent transvaginal cerclage over a 4-year period was obtained. Comparisons were made between elective (history-indicated) and non-elective (ultrasound or physical examination-indicated) cerclage placement. Comparisons were also made between physical examination-indicated and ultrasound-indicated cerclage. Results. Compared to those who had a non-elective cerclage, women undergoing elective cerclage were more likely to have history of cervical treatment (44% vs. 15%, ), and spontaneous preterm delivery (92% vs. 61%, ). There was no difference in the rate of delivery ≤72 hours following cerclage removal between women who had elective cerclage and those who had non-elective cerclage (46% vs. 58%, ). Women who had an elective cerclage were more likely to have elective cerclage removal ≥36 weeks (71.8% vs. 39.4%, ), compared to those who had undergone non-elective cerclage. The rate of delivery ≤72 hours following removal of cerclage was greater in women who had a physical examination-indicated cerclage compared to women who had ultrasound-indicated cerclage (80% vs. 39%, ). Among women who had an elective cerclage, there was no difference in the rate of delivery at ≤72 hours between those who had elective cerclage removal at 36 weeks compared to those electively removed at 37 weeks (31% vs. 58%, ). No complications such as fetal demise, iatrogenic amniotic membrane rupture, hemorrhage, or cervical laceration were reported within this cohort. Conclusion. Cerclage indication should be considered prior to scheduling elective cerclage removal. Women who had an elective cerclage are most likely to get it electively removed at 36 weeks compared to their counterparts who had a non-elective cerclage. Furthermore, women who had a physical examination-indicated cerclage are most likely to deliver within 72 hours of cerclage removal.
Associated Factors of Male Participation in Antenatal Care in Muaro Jambi District, Indonesia
Objective. This study aims to evaluate the level of male participation and factors associated with male participation in antenatal care. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed, involving a survey of 381 men, selected through multistage random sampling. The outcome variable male participation in antenatal care was constructed from eight dichotomized indicators, and measurement results were low (scored 1 and 2) and high (scored 3 and 4). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0 at a significance level of 0.05. Results. The percentage of male participation in antenatal care was low (41.2%). Associated factors included age (, ), number of children (, ), income (, ), and knowledge (, ). Knowledge was found to be the main factor for male participation in antenatal care in Muaro Jambi Regency. Conclusion. Male participation in antenatal care in Muaro Jambi District was low and was influenced by age, number of children, income, and knowledge. Health promotion programs are needed to empower men to participate in antenatal care by providing communication, education, and information.