Long Noncoding RNA XIST Promotes Resistance to Lenvatinib in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Epigenetic Inhibition of NOD2Read the full article
Journal of Oncology publishes research related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer.
Chief Editor, Professor Bruno Vincenzi, is an Associate Professor of Medical Oncology at University Campus Bio-Medico, Italy. His research interests include urogenital neoplasms and the pathophysiology and treatment of bone metastases.
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TRPV1 Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor for Its Negative Association with Tumor Proliferation and Positive Association with Antitumor Immune Responses in Pan-Cancer
Background. Although numerous studies have shown that the expression and activation of TRPV1 have an important role in cancer development, a comprehensive exploration of associations between TRPV1 expression and tumor proliferation, microenvironment, and clinical outcomes in pan-cancer remains insufficient. Methods. From The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program, we downloaded multiomics data of ten cancer cohorts and investigated the correlations between TRPV1 expression and immune signatures’ enrichment, stromal content, genomic features, oncogenic signaling, and clinical features in these cancer cohorts and pan-cancer. Results. Elevated expression of TRPV1 correlated with better clinical outcomes in pan-cancer and diverse cancer types. In multiple cancer types, TRPV1 expression correlated negatively with the expression of tumor proliferation marker genes (MKI67 and RACGAP1), proliferation scores, cell cycle scores, stemness scores, epithelial-mesenchymal transition scores, oncogenic pathways’ enrichment, tumor immunosuppressive signals, intratumor heterogeneity, homologous recombination deficiency, tumor mutation burden, and stromal content. Moreover, TRPV1 expression was downregulated in late-stage versus early-stage tumors. In breast cancer, bladder cancer, and low-grade glioma, TRPV1 expression was more inferior in invasive than in noninvasive subtypes. Pathway analysis showed that the enrichment of cancer-associated pathways correlated inversely with TRPV1 expression levels. Conclusion. TRPV1 upregulation correlates with decreased tumor proliferation, tumor driver gene expression, genomic instability, and tumor immunosuppressive signals in various cancers. Our results provide new understanding of the role of TRPV1 in both cancer biology and clinical practice.
Effects of Long Noncoding RNA HOXA-AS2 on the Proliferation and Migration of Gallbladder Cancer Cells
To explore the function and mechanism of lncRNA HOXA-AS2 in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)-derived exosomes in gallbladder cancer metastasis, and provide new research targets for the treatment of gallbladder cancer. At the same time, in order to clarify the early predictive value of lncRNA HOXA-AS2 for gallbladder cancer metastasis, and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical individualized treatment of gallbladder cancer. Methods. In our previous work, we used TCGA database analysis to find that lncRNA HOXA-AS2 was highly expressed in gallbladder cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. In this study, the expression levels of HOXA-AS2 in gallbladder cancer cell lines and control cells were first verified by QPCR and Western blot methods. Then, lentiviral tools were used to construct knockdown vectors (RNAi#1, RNAi#2) and negative control vectors targeting two different sites of HOXA-AS2, and the vectors were transfected into NOZ and OCUG-1 cells, respectively. Real-time PCR was used to detect knockdown efficiency. Then, the effects of silencing HOXA-AS2 on the proliferation, cell viability, cell migration, and invasion ability of gallbladder cancer cells were detected by MTT, plate cloning assay, Transwell migration chamber assay, and Transwell invasion chamber assay. Finally, the interaction between HOXA-AS2 and miR-6867 and the 3UTR of YAP1 protein was detected by luciferase reporter gene. The results showed that the expression level of HOXA-AS2 in gallbladder cancer cell lines was higher than that in control cells. The expression of HOXA-AS2 in gallbladder carcinoma tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues (). After successful knockout of HOXA-AS2 by lentiviral transfection, the expression of HOXA-AS2 in gallbladder cancer cell lines was significantly decreased. Through cell proliferation and plate clone detection, it was found that silencing HOXA-AS2 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Through software prediction and fluorescein reporter gene detection, it was found that HOXA-AS2 has a binding site with miR-6867, and the two are negatively correlated, that is, the expression of miR-6867 is enhanced after the expression of HOXA-AS2 is downregulated. And the 3UTR of YAP1 protein in the Hippo signaling pathway binds to miR-6867. Therefore, HOXA-AS2 may affect the expression of YAP1 protein by regulating miR-6867, thereby inhibiting the Hippo signaling pathway and promoting the proliferation and metastasis of gallbladder cancer cells. HOXA-AS2 is abnormally expressed in gallbladder cancer cells. HOXA-AS2 may promote the migration and invasion of gallbladder cancer cells by regulating the Hippo signaling pathway through miR-6867. HOXA-AS2 may serve as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for gallbladder cancer in clinic.
Cellular Landscaping of COVID-19 and Gynaecological Cancers: An Infrequent Correlation
COVID-19 resulted in a mortality rate of 3–6% caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its variant leading to unprecedented consequences of acute respiratory distress septic shock and multiorgan failure. In such a situation, evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and care for cancer patients are difficult tasks faced by medical staff. Moreover, patients with gynaecological cancer appear to be more prone to severe infection and mortality from COVID-19 due to immunosuppression by chemotherapy and coexisting medical disorders. To deal with such a circumtances oncologists have been obliged to reconsider the entire diagnostic, treatment, and management approach. This review will provide and discuss the molecular link with gynaecological cancer under COVID-19 infection, providing a novel bilateral relationship between the two infections. Moreover, the authors have provided insights to discuss the pathobiology of COVID-19 in gynaecological cancer and their risks associated with such comorbidity. Furthermore, we have depicted the overall impact of host immunity along with guidelines for the treatment of patients with gynaecological cancer under COVID-19 infection. We have also discussed the feasible scope for the management of COVID-19 and gynaecological cancer.
Identification of Immune and Hypoxia Risk Classifier to Estimate Immune Microenvironment and Prognosis in Cervical Cancer
Purpose. Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common gynecologic neoplasms. Hypoxia is an essential trigger for activating immunosuppressive activity and initiating malignant tumors. However, the determination of the role of immunity and hypoxia on the clinical outcome of CC patients remains unclear. Methods. The CC independent cohort were collected from TCGA database. Consensus cluster analysis was employed to determine a molecular subtype based on immune and hypoxia gene sets. Cox relevant analyses were utilized to set up a risk classifier for prognosis assessment. The underlying pathways of classifier genes were detected by GSEA. Moreover, we conducted CIBERSORT algorithm to mirror the immune status of CC samples. Results. We observed two cluster related to immune and hypoxia status and found the significant difference in outcome of patients between the two clusters. A total of 251 candidate genes were extracted from the two clusters and enrolled into Cox relevant analyses. Then, seven hub genes (CCL20, CXCL2, ITGA5, PLOD2, PTGS2, TGFBI, and VEGFA) were selected to create an immune and hypoxia-based risk classifier (IHBRC). The IHBRC can precisely distinguish patient risk and estimate clinical outcomes. In addition, IHBRC was closely bound up with tumor associated pathways such as hypoxia, P53 signaling and TGF β signaling. IHBRC was also tightly associated with numerous types of immunocytes. Conclusion. This academic research revealed that IHBRC can be served as predictor for prognosis assessment and cancer treatment estimation in CC.
Prediction of Cervical Lymph Nodes Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) Using Nodal Staging Score (NSS)
Background. Cervical lymph node metastasis is commonly seen in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery is the preferred treatment for PTC with cervical lymph node metastasis. There is no alternate ultrasound, neck CT, and thyroglobulin (Tg) methods to assess the occult lymph node metastasis. For moderate-and high-risk PTC, the number of lymph nodes to be dissected should be increased to remove the occult lymph node metastasis. Objective. This study was designed to develop a nodal staging score model to predict the likelihood of lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and further guide the treatments. Material and Methods. Data were collected from the SEER database. Patients with PTC from 2000 to 2005 were selected. The beta-binomial model was adopted to establish a nodal staging score (NSS)-based model. The NSS-based model was built according to gender, age, extrathyroidal invasion, tumor multifocality, tumor size, and T stage of the patients. A total of 12,431 PTC patients were included in our study. Various types of lymph nodes were examined based on various categories (incidence, risk assessment) to evaluate the results. Results. 5,959 (47.9%) patients in the study were positive and 6,472 (52.1%) were confirmed negative for lymph node metastasis. The corrected incidence of lymph node metastasis was higher than that of direct calculation, regardless of the factors that affected lymph node metastasis. There were significant differences in the OS of PTC patients among the four groups and T stage ( is less than 0.05), indicating that cervical lymph node metastasis would have an impact on the prognosis of patients. Conclusion. In conclusion, an NSS-based model base on a variety of clinicopathological factors can be used to predict lymph node metastasis. It is important to evaluate the risk of occult lymph node metastasis in the treatment of PTC.. Since, this statistical model can describe the risk of occult lymph node metastasis in patients; therefore, it can be used as basis for decision-making related to the number of lymph nodes that can be dissected in operations.
The Critical Gene Screening to Prevent Chromophobe Cell Renal Carcinoma Metastasis through TCGA and WGCNA
Common chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) has a good prognosis when cured by surgery. However, clinical practice shows that a small number of patients with chRCC will produce metastasis, and the prognosis after metastasis is poor. In this regard, we try to find potential biological targets to prevent CRCC metastasis. In this experiment, we analyzed the clinical traits and gene expression data of chRCC samples which were provided by the TCGA database by the WGCNA method. On this basis, we selected MEtan, a module with a significant positive correlation with the M phase of chRCC, for subsequent analysis. The MEtan module genes in the biological process of chRCC were mainly related to steroid metabolic process, cholesterol metabolic process and STEM cell differentiation. KEGG analysis showed that these genes were mainly enriched in cancer-related signaling pathways, such as Neuroactive Ligand−receptor interaction, cAMP signaling pathway, and Wnt signaling pathway. Subsequently, we mapped the PPI interaction network and screened the key gene beta-arrestin 2 (ARRB2). Expression analysis showed that there was a significantly increased expression of ARRB2 in chRCC patients in comparison to the normal group. Expression survival analysis indicated that ARRB2 was inversely associated with overall survival. We firmly believe that the key genes identified in this study would be able to provide new clues and research basis for the treatment of chRCC.